The Age of Carnage

Well, the World is simply boiling by 1000 BCE.

If the last two millennia were the Age of Terror, then this millennia must be the Age of Carnage. The Age of Madness is yet to come!

Empires have risen and fallen for over 4000 years. Civilisation is used to peaks of brilliance and innovation by this time and everyone is out to do better. Literacy is well established, not only amongst the Priesthood and Royalty, but also in the administrators and functionaries who are now so vital.

Technology is sophisticated and the Iron Age has begun. Warfare is specialised and standing armies mandatory. Warfare is the only game in town! Old world orders have collapsed many times in the past three millennia and another technologically new world is emerging from the devastation at the end of the Bronze Age.

Humanity is used to power elites and taxes and sanitation and war by this time. Healing sanctuaries and oracular sites are well established and have probably been in use for a millennia. Trade routes have been operational since mankind’s dawn and travel is common place. Indeed, the majority of the populations of the World are still nomadic but they are not independent of settled city life any more. Nomads depend upon the trade civilisation offers, and the city dwellers depend on nomads in equal measure, though the balance between the two will continue to see saw about into relatively modern times. City dwellers exchanged pottery, grains and roots and even metals for fresh meat, milk and hides and furs from nomads. Knowledge as always passes between the two. However, increasingly the trend is towards settlement at this time.

Some societies are still free to roam, in Africa the Bantu People and the San People or Bushmen, in Australia the Aborigines, in North America the Indian Tribes, though South America is developing Empires at a rapid rate. Nomadic peoples will be protected for a while by their land and their isolation, and some will have a millennia or so before they too are penned up and forced to a sedentary life. Most nomadic peoples are egalitarian to some degree, the most egalitarian society in the world are the Australian Aborigines, who have been left to their own devices in a big enough land mass to evolve along more peaceful lines, something to rest of the World can only dream about from this time period onwards.

The Tribal Societies emerging at this time vary significantly in North America, in Australia, in Arabia. Tribal Society in Eurasia and Europe has been defining itself into different tribal groups for quite a while, and there is increasing warfare amongst them as the cult of the Hero becomes the cult of the warrior. Germania becomes a distinct entity in Europe. However, the descriptions of European Tribes by Tacitus and Julius Caesar at the end of this time period does not demonstrate any suspicion of the rigid structures originating in India at the beginning of this time period. However, we have to remember when reading such texts that they were works written preparatory to invasion and as always with such reports, they downplay and caricature populations earmarked for slavery and destruction.

We do know that in the European Tribes, the Druids divided society into three parts, priests, warriors and workers, and that the Druids would assess each youngster and allocate them to each caste as their disposition suited, and each caste was considered to be equally important in the smooth running of the culture and each supported the other. Both men and women could be Druids. This egalitarian approach will dissolve in Europe over this time period as invasion, warfare and land grab become the norm.

What is so devastating about the destruction of the European Tribal societies at the end of this time period is that this is the first fully and graphically documented horror of genocidal conquest. The glorification of such genocide by historians, past and present, who were so enamored by Rome, means that even today the inappropriateness of hero worship, terror tactics and the misuse of power is only just beginning to dawn on us. The true carnage the Romans unleashed is still justified in history books and on television in the name of technology and progress. This awful, noxious and very nasty fog has not faded from a human imagination which is still facing the rise of super powers with a frisson of awe, expectation, respect and fascination.

Other societies use their Tribal background to transfer certain roles down through the family along patriarchal lines, as the Jews did with the Levite Priest caste. This practice will continue well into the modern age, though increasingly competition for opportunities will dissolve this practice in most societies as time goes on.

The rigid caste system of the Vedic Culture in India with the Brahmin caste and a rigidly defined warrior caste is quite different. This rigid caste system spreads along the extensive sea trade links between India and its trading neighbours, possibly because it is such a good technique for invasion and takeover. The use of trading contacts to cover invasion is well illustrated here, and this technique will be used right into the modern age all around the world. The caste system appears to result from extreme competition between conquerors and indigenous peoples, as the age old pattern of migration becomes invasion as Empires define and defend territory. The meaning of the Dalit Caste, or Untouchables means ‘held under check’ ‘suppressed’ or ‘crushed’ which gives you the general idea! The caste system spreads to Indonesia, to Sri Lanka, to Korea and onwards to Japan, and in the other direction to Yemen and onwards to Africa. In some societies, the caste system developed into a strangulating and rigid structure, which will cause further splits in these societies as time goes on. Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism emerge as a result of this struggle when the Brahmins loose control due to their rigidity.
China on the other hand, used its highly established culture to completely absorb other groups within it, and so women gradually become marginalised instead. Female infanticide may have its origins in China at this time, and this unfortunate prejudice also spreads around the World as the need for warriors outstrips the need for more people. Land is fiercely contested and populations surge. However, as traditionally land is linked to female deities from the dawn of time, women may have become subjugated as warriors increasingly gain control of the land, and legitimate their conquest by marrying the land, literally and figuratively. Females were manipulated and forced into marriages for political reasons. This is still practiced around the World today.

Another unfortunate consequence of this period was slavery, which we can assume was always a feature of human society, but it took on a different form in this time period as well. Conquered and indigenous populations suffered as they became subjugated and assimilated by the growth of Empires.

It is not known (to me at this time) what influence China had on Vietnam or Korea during this millennia, but other parts of South Asia did come under China’s sway. Tibet was safely isolated, but Nepal, Afghanistan, India and Pakistan as we call these areas today, were accessible to the Eurasian Tribes who entered this area in vast waves during this time period.

The mysteries continue, of course. The academics of our later modern centuries had such preconceived notions of our ancestors that more often than not they have been deliberately misunderstood. A good example is the treatment of myth, as mentioned earlier with the Sumerian myths. Academics just would not believe them! So many cultures are literate by this time, and writing from this time forms the basis of modern culture and thought, especially from the Greek and Roman worlds and from the Bible. After centuries of absolute belief in the myths of the Bible, modern academics have tended to disbelieve everything as a default position, and as a result we are still unpicking events from the past. It is sometimes hard to get beyond people’s fixed ideas, no matter which way they fall, towards total belief or total disbelief.

A prime example of this confusion over myths is due to the fact that the Greek and Roman worlds were the only documented cultures for such a very long time and so much was believed, but Cyclops, Griffins, Giants, Dragons? These are not so easy to believe, and because modern academics firmly believed the ancients were credulous, they could not bring themselves to accept that humans have always observed the world in an intelligent manner, after all science was a recent invention wasn’t it! Dr. Adrienne Mayor’s book The First Fossil Hunters illustrates well the truth of the Greeks keen observation of fossils and their attempts to explain them using their mythological world. Far from being silly, they thought fossil Proceratops were Griffins who hoarded gold because the Scythians had told them of fossils found along the Altai Mountains (Altai means gold) and along the Silk Road. Dragons probably entered the mythological record in a similar fashion from the Vedas. The ancients constantly came across fossils of gigantic bones and strange creatures and the recorded finds accumulate around known fossil beds that so interest modern archaeologists today.

The Greeks also believed that Mastodon fossils were Cyclops because they mistook the trunk attachment for one huge eye socket, and they wrote about such finds using their mythologies to explain them. Modern academics dismissed these legends out of hand. Early archaeologists simply threw the fossil bones away when they excavated Greek temples and shrines. It appears that the Greeks believed these bones were from Heroes and exhibited the bones in the temples and shrines, or they ritually reburied them. Our ancestors have revered the bones of their ancestors for millennia. The ancient burial mounds excavated around the World demonstrate this strange practice, and it is curious when we think of the fascination with Saints relics that will so consume the European world in the next millennia to see just how old some of these beliefs are. Quite a few ‘mysteries’ are due to the prejudice of modern academics and the practice of sloppy dating. If some Greek mentions something in his writing, then this is not the accurate date for something in the real World! However, the confusion surrounding our early histories can increasingly be cleared away as these modern sciences mature and come of age today.

  • 1000 BCE Israel David reputedly unifies the kingdom at this time, but there is little archaeology to back this up, and this history may well be retrospective (see 458 BCE). However, the Tel Dan stelae does mention David by name. Jerusalem is only a small citadel at this time.
  • 1000 BCE Arabia The Minaean Kingdom in Arabia is at its height
  • 1000 BCE China Accupuncture is developed
  • 1000 BCE Ireland Tara was reputedly the capital of the Tuatha de Dan Culture
  • 1000 BCE Yemen The Sabaean Kingdom in Yemen is at its beginning
  • 1000 BCE North America The Dorset Culture in Arctic North America gives way to the Inuit, but this may have happened much earlier, we just don’t really know
  • 990 BCE The Phoenicians are trading as far as Britain and Ireland. Himlico left his travel journal describing his travels around the British Isles, though these probably date to the 6th century BCE
  • 990 BCE Europe The Trans European Tribal Culture is still in its heyday and called Celtic Culture by modern historians, but these terms have more to do with modern historians than the peoples or the cultures themselves. The European and Eurasian Tribes still roam from Iberia to Mongolia and Siberia and down as far as Central Asia, Anatolia and China. Individual Tribes are now vast and calling themselves by distinct clan names. The Scythians dominate Siberia, the Celts dominate Northern Europe, Iberia and parts of Anatolia, the Sarmatians dominate Russia and the Ukraine and the Cimmerians dominate Asia Minor. Commonly reported dates for these peoples are taken from the dates the Greeks wrote about them, for example, Herodotus wrote about them in 512 BCE which is used as a date for the peoples themselves. However, this is another cause for confusion as this is sloppy dating and these peoples do not depend on their existence upon such happenstance. The Greeks are founding colonies in Iberia and Italy, and the Phoenicians are founding colonies in Iberia and along the North African coast where they establish the city of Carthage. The Celts are superior in the use of metal at this time and invent chain mail and superior weaponry. The worship of springs and watery places may reflect the drying climate and the pressure on territory and natural resources. Water and forests were the oil reserves of this age. In Britain the Avenue at Stonehenge is completed. There is evidence for settlement, with opidans, as archaeologists now call the seasonal ceremonial centres people have been using for millennia, and hill forts which are more to do with seasonal fairs and ritual events than permanent settlements. However in the North West, where the competition for land on the small island of Britain and where the far North of Europe forces people to settle, they may be more formal. The vast areas of the European and Eurasian land mass allowed other tribes to move more freely, with constraints growing through this millennia and impinging on them from all sides as time goes on. There is evidence from burials of a growing Warrior Culture based on horses which can be seen in the archaeological remains across this vast area. In Uffington in Britain, archaeologists have excavated warriors and horses from burial grounds which have been in continuous use for over three millennia. The chalk figure of the White Horse at Uffington has been maintained by local people for the last three thousand years.
  • 980 BCE Yemen The Sabaeans in Yemen had close links to the D’mt Culture in Ethiopia and Eritrea and Sheba or Bilquis reigned in the Marib Desert where a massive 3000 foot wide damn and temple complex still stands to show the skills of this Nabataean Kingdom which reached as far as Petra in Jordon, the end of their lucrative caravanseri trade. Bilquis is also known as Ayesha and she was reported to be Solomon’s favourite wife, though he seems to have had many wives, including a Pharoah’s daughter. As was often the way in the ancient world, land came with the woman on marriage, so prestigious marriages were little more than land deeds. Aisha is also known as Mohammed’s Child Bride from the Islamic age, maybe a claim to ancestry to enable a new religion to take hold in a similar fashion? Ayesha is a name of Persian origin, so trading wives for land must have been widespread in these times. Another myth from this time says that Sheba’s son Menelek took the Ark of the Covenant to Ethiopia, to the D’mt kingdom.
  • 977 BCE Egypt Pharoah Siamun reburied the New Kingdom mummies at Deir El Bahri as they were no longer safe in the Valley of the Kings. Siamun made a treaty with Solomon and invaded the Philistines in Lower Judah, another example of the close relationship between Solomon, Israel and Egypt. If Solomon really did build (or rebuild) the first cities in Israel at this time, Megiddo, Gezer and Hazor, then he must have had Siamun’s permission to do so under the terms of the treaty, because that was the way it worked, then and now.
  • 970 BCE Israel was at the height of its Biblical fame at the beginning of this time period, under Kings Saul, David and Solomon who ruled a unified kingdom before the split with Judah, and who built the famous Temple of Solomon. Archaeologists tell us that Canaan was very sparsely populated at this time and home to a pastoral people, with a polytheistic religion in vogue. The worship of Baal and El were universally worshiped throughout the region, but they can identify a pattern between Israel and Judah and the lowlands where the Philistines lived. There were no pig bones found in the Israeli highlands, though they are common archaeological finds everywhere else. Archaeologists also tell us that Jerusalem was only a small Citadel and village at this time. Israel occupied the Northern highlands which are richer in resources than the dry and poorer Southern lowlands. The same pottery has been excavated through the whole region and the people share many cultural similarities. The Bible explicitly describes Egyptian armies raging through Canaan during Solomon’s time, but he seems to have been safe enough married to Pharaoh’s daughter, even if she was only one of his many wives (see 945 BCE).
  • 950 BCE Iceland The Hekla Volcano in Iceland erupts causing crop devastation in the Northern Hemisphere for a decade, adding to the general atmosphere of chaos, or even spurring it on. The gods were angry and the people responded with different ritual practice and belief.
  • 945 BCE Egypt The Pharoah Shishaq destroyed 150 cities in Canaan and he recorded his victories at Thebes. He devastated the whole area. Shishaq was supposedly fighting in support of Jeroboam who broke away from Israel and led the Northern tribes after Solomon’s death. If Solomon was not responsible for the rebuilding of cities, then possibly it was at this time that the cities of Hazor and Megiddo were rebuilt with six gated entrances, the same as the Philistine cities in the area, obviously a fashion in city building at this time. This raises some interesting questions about what the relationship between the Israelites and the Egyptians really was? Shishaq was also supporting an Edomite pretender and was probably playing the usual game of politics in the region. There does seem to have been a very close relationship between the Egyptians and Jewish peoples. Solomon had an Egyptian Princess for wife, and many other wives and concubines as well, which sounds like Egyptian Pharonic practice, and Jeroboam had an Egyptian army at his beck and call. He succeeded in breaking away to form Israel and Solomon’s son Rehoboam became king of Judah. Shishaq’s son Pharoah Osorkon I died on campaign in Israel and Judah, and Pharoah Osorkon II allied with Israel to defeat the Assyrian expansion into Canaan.
  • 900 BCE South America The Chavin Culture emerges in South America
  • 814 BCE North Africa Carthage is founded on the North African coast by the Phoenicians
  • 800 BCE Israel Judah begins to develop a standardised bureacracy and literacy is evident in stamps on pottery from Hebron.
  • 800 BCE? Greece The Oracle at Delphi becomes popular and the Greek colony at Cumae on the Italian coast had an oracle devoted to Hades
  • 800 BCE? World The climate undergoes another wet period and this is reflected in an increase of offerings into watery places across Northern Europe. The Llyn Fawr cauldron is deposited in a lake in Wales
  • 800 BCE North America The Mississipian Culture in North America emerges
  • 800 BCE Europe The Hallstatt Culture emerges to pre eminence in Europe by controlling the salt industry
  • 776 BCE Greece The Olympic Games are founded in Greece as Greek Culture resurges
  • 753 BCE Rome The foundation of mythical Rome actually founded by the Etruscans
  • 752 BCE Central Africa The Kushites invade Egypt under their king Piye, much to the relief of the population suffering under the chaos caused by the priesthood at the end of the Third Intermediate Period. The Kushite Pharaoh’s brought Egyptian culture up into a new flowering based on old Egyptian customs, with added Kushite frisson, for example the roles played by the Queens as god’s wife and the huge power they command, which the queens of the New Kingdom rarely displayed. The Kushites campaigned widely in Canaan and warfare was ever present throughout this time period.
  • 750 BCE Italy the Etruscans emerge and expand across the Italian Peninsula
  • 732 BCE Israel Assyria overuns the Northern kingdom of Israel which collapses, resulting in over 10,000 refugees fleeing to Judah, which transforms the kingdom
  • 732 BCE Syria the Philistines loose their kingdom to the Assyrians
  • 709 BCE Anatolia Midas becomes king in Phrygia as an ally of Assyria.
  • 705 BCE Assyria Sennacherib becomes king of Assyria. This is the high point of their civilisation and they are trading widely with Arabia, Africa, Chad and Mali.
  • 701 BCE Israel the Assyrians invade Israel under the Assyrian King Sennacherib who attacks Judah. The siege of Laish is well attested by archaeology at the site where the ramp built by the Assyrians to attack the town still stands, and on Assyrian inscriptions where a detailed bas relief describes the events vividly. The Assyrians reputedly took ten tribes into exile to Khorasan in Iran. This invasion caused thousands of refugees to pour into Jerusalem which swelled in size to accommodate them as Israel collapsed. The Spring of Gehon was dug at this time with tunnels extending right into the bed rock and this achievement is recorded on the stelae of Hezekiah. The kings of Israel and Judah do continue in a weakened fashion but Israel is reduced and over run, and Judah increases in importance. In Jerusalem, Hezekiah began the collation of the Bible texts and carries out a religious purge promoting monetheism and pulling down shrines to the old religion and temples are built instead. Yahweh comes to prominence now, and his consort Asherah seems well represented with statuettes and figurines in the archaeological record.
  • 700 BCE Judah Assyria withdraws after the invasion
  • 700 BCE North America the Mimbres or Mogollon Culture emerges in North America
  • 700 BCE Greece Sparta rises from the Greek Dark Age
  • 700 BCE Greece Hesiod compiles his writings, including ‘Works and Days’ which included details of the Heliacal rising of the sun. This has caused much speculation that Stonehenge was known to the Greeks as a Temple of Apollo and that Hesiod was passing on ancient knowledge here, but he does not credit his sources!
  • 700 BCE Greece Homer writes the Odyssey and the Iliad
  • 695 BCE Anatolia King Midas commits suicide when the Cimmerians invade Gordium the city of the Phrygians
  • 689 BCE Assyria king Sennacherib destroys the city of Babylon.
  • 682 BCE Assyria Ashurburnipal becomes king of Assyria and he compiled a massive library at Nineveh comprising all of the collected works of Assyrian and Babylon, which luckily for us, archaeologists have discovered. The Epic of Gilgamesh was discovered in this archive
  • 672 BCE Egypt The Egyptian Late Period contains many invasions by Assyrian, Kushite, Lybian and Persian dynasties and several abortive attempts by existing and local Egyptian dynasties to regain the territories. There is extensive warfare across the whole area from Syria, Mesopotamia, Israel, Judah and Egypt
  • 664 BCE Egypt the last remains of the Nubian Pharaohs expelled from Egypt and the Third Intermediate Period finally comes to an end. Pharaoh Psamtik I reunites Egypt and expels the Assyrians.
  • 662 BCE Anatolia the ancient city of Byzantium founded
  • 640 BCE Judah a peace treaty was signed between Josiah and the Assyrians, allowing him to complete state centralisation. Josiah redoubles the religious purge around Yahwah and took complete control of the state in Jerusalem, one god, one king, one temple, all descended from David based on the reformation of cults back to Abraham as the newly written Bible is formulated. The tribal identity of old disappears and individuals appear, a revolution occurring widely across the region at this time, as collective burial sites give way to individual burials, tribal compounds give way to individual houses and the nuclear family steps forward.The Book of Law was compiled and written down. Deuteronomy heralds a reformation as all other gods are banned, and individual rights for ordinary people heralds a new consciousness and a rejection of tradition.
  • 627 BCE Assyria the Assyrians invade Mesopotamia only to collapse in the same year. They seem to be very closely related to the Babylonians as they emulated them, spoke the same language, wore the same clothes and worshiped the same gods
  • 610 BCE Egypt Necho II Egyptian Pharaoh is again campaigning against the Assyrians and Judah in Canaan and he establishes power bases throughout the region. Necho II also brought Jewish mercenaries back to Egypt to guard Aswan and Elaphantine where early Jewish temple remains have been found
  • 609 BCE Judah Josiah is killed at Megiddo by the Egyptians under Necho II who invade from the South, as Babylon under Nabopolassar invaded from the North
  • 605 BCE Judah Nebuchadnezzar II invades and killed Zedekiah‘s sons in front of him and then blinded him and took all the nobility off into exile in Babylon where the Jewish exiles compile more of the Bible
  • 600 BCE Greece the Greek Hellenistic Culture flowers
  • 600 BCE Gaul Marseille is founded by the Greeks on the south coast of Gaul
  • 600 BCE Persia the Medes emerge as an Empire in Iran and destroy the Assyrians
  • 600 BCE Europe Hohmichele Celtic Hallstatt settlement in Germany reveals evidence of trade with China for silk
  • 600 BCE Armenia Orontid Dynsasty emerges
  • 598 BCE Italy Tarquin king of the Etruscans founds Rome and builds the first temple there, dedicated to Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, the first Triad of gods most widely worshiped
  • 597 BCE Babylon Nebuchandnezzar of Babylon ravaged Israel and destroyed Jerusalem and forced some Jews into their Babylonian exile. This is when the final version of the Bible is believed to have been compiled as the Jews absorb the Babylonian Culture. Babylon had a population of about one million people at this time and the extensive libraries at Sippar are still being excavated today. The Babylonians were astrologically complex and the famous Tower of Babel was on a sight line with Borsippa where another tower still stands. The Jews were allowed to return to Israel when the Persians destroyed Babylon and went onto ravage and rule Egypt
  • 582 BCE Greece the Greek mathematician Pythagoras born on Samos
  • 563 BCE India Buddha born
  • 559 BCE Egypt the Persians invade Egypt and destroy the Kushite dynasty
  • 559 BCE? Egypt Cambyses leads a Persian army into Egyptian desert and disappears
  • 550 BCE Greece Pythagoras wrote and taught in Marseille and as a result he is credited with the discovery of mathematical theorums even though the builders of Stonehenge and the Pyramids obviously knew about them millennia earlier! Oh dear! More sloppy thinking by modern historians, so what is new?
  • 550 BCE Persia the Persian Empire under Cyrus the Great extends over all of Asia Minor, Central Asia and Egypt
  • 549 BCE Persia Darius I succeeds Cyrus as king of Persia
  • 540 BCE Judah the Babylonian exiles begin to return
  • 539 BCE Babylon Nabonidas the last king of Babylon dies and the Empire with him
  • 525 BCE Egypt end of the rule of god’s wife in Egypt
  • 525 BCE Persia the Persians introduce camels to the Sahara and the Trans Sahara Trade Route now links the North African coast with the heart of Africa. Thankfully South Africa will be left to its own devices in this millennia
  • 515 BCE Persia Persepolis built in Persia and archaeologists have found over 30,000 clay tablet fragments from this site. This city is a classic example of city dwellers and nomads both using the same city. The city itself was massive, and vast camping grounds surround the city for the nomads
  • 509 BCE Rome the Roman Republic and Senate is formed
  • 500 BCE Central Africa the Bantu People move into the Congo
  • 500 BCE Meso America the Zapotec Culture emerges in Mesoamerica
  • 500 BCE World Charcoal is now universal so iron production goes up a notch
  • 500 BCE Anatolia the Amazons fight against the Persians
  • 500 BCE Britain Danebury Hill Fort in Britain is fortified. It has been a ceremonial seasonal hill fort since 2500 BCE
  • 500 BCE North Africa after three hundred years, Carthage is the richest city in the Mediterranean with a vast commercial sailing fleet of over seven hundred ships, which are made in kit form and come in a flat pack! They can be made overnight and are the best ships going at the time. The Phoenicians in Carthage worshiped the goddess Tanit, and their agricultural genius was so profound, it is still followed today in the Tunisian olive groves. The Carthaginians are trading all over the Mediterranean and the Greeks believed they had circumnavigated Africa
  • 500 BCE Japan the first Emperor of Japan
  • 500 BCE India the caste system has become so rigid that religion splits under the pressure. The Brahmin have taken power off women and created untouchables, so Jainism and Buddism spring reactively into place and Hinduism continues, as it has done since the dawn of time. However, the Four Noble Truths – suffering – ignorance – the eight fold way and reincarnation are kept from antiquity and held to be universal.
  • 499 BCE Asia Minor Greek colonies in Asia Minor revolt against the Persian Empire
  • 490 BCE Persia the Persians under Darius I invade Greece and are defeated by an Athenian army at the Battle of Marathon
  • 490 BCE Italy the Celts invade Northern Italy
  • 486 BCE China The Grand Canal was begun by the Zhou Dynasty
  • 480 BCE Greece invaded Carthage in the Sicilian Wars
  • 480 BCE Greece the Spartan army defeats the Persian army of Xerxes I at Thermopylae
  • 480 BCE Greece the Parthenon construction begins in Athens
  • 477 BCE Greece Comet impact in Thrace
  • 476 BCE Greece Hecataeus of Miletus writes about the Keltoi
  • 470 BCE Italy the Celtic tribes invade Italy and destroy the Etruscans
  • 465 BCE Greece Earthquakes hit Sparta and the Helots rebelled. Athens refused to help and Sparta failed to put down the rebellion
  • 462 BCE Greece Herodotus visits Babylon and Egypt
  • 458 BCE Israel Persia rules all the the kingdoms in the area as overlords and the last of the Jewish exiles are released. Jewish priests now rule in place of Jewish kings. Ezra came to prominence in the Babylonian exile and he led the returnees back to Jerusalem. He is reputedly responsible for compiling the Torah, and possibly adding the lineage of Abraham, as there is no archaeological or genetic evidence for early immigration into Canaan from Mesopotamia in the Bronze Age, although this is a well entrenched belief in the people’s own verbal history of the time. Ezra also complied the collected works of the Old Testament at this time, which now take on the form that has survived into the modern era.
  • 450 BCE Europe the Celtic Culture of La Tene flourishes
  • 445 BCE Greece Herodotus returns to Greece and writes his histories. These become the basis of modern history and if peoples are not mentioned by Herodotus, they do not exist, or so we are told. He mentions the Keltoi, and as this is the second mention by a Greek author, we are officially allowed to exist, which is nice! Also, as he was believed to be a credulous ancient by modern historians, most of his histories were assigned to myth, so the Amazons were relegated to legend until the sterling work of archaeologist Jeannine Davis Kimball put the record straight!
  • 432 BCE Greece Meton writes about the 19 year lunar cycle, and as a consequence he is credited with its discovery. However, as previously discussed, this cycle was known by the makers of the gold Wizard Hats discovered in Europe and dated to about 1300 BCE, another example of the sloppy dating of historians. It is also confirmed by the Celtic Coligny Calender which was discovered in Gaul, and again displays the 19 year lunar cycle
  • 431 BCE Greece the Peleponnesian Civil war between Sparta and Athens lasts for twenty years. Celtic mercenaries fight on behalf of Sparta at this time
  • 410 BCE Rome the Romans built a wall around Rome to defend themselves
  • 400 BCE South America the Saladoid Culture moves from South America into the Caribbean Islands
  • 400 BCE Egypt the Jewish mercenaries at Elephantine in Egypt were reputedly thrown out at this time, and they joined the long trek to Ethiopia and the ancient kingdom of D’mt. It is hypothesised that a Jewish Diaspora had been growing in D’mt since 800 BCE due to Menelek and his supposed ownership of the Ark of the Covenant. See 980 BCE
  • 400 BCE Gaul the Greeks withdraw from Gaul and Marseille as the Celts expel them
  • 400 BCE Europe Celtic coins begin
  • 400 BCE Central Africa the kingdom of Aksum in the Red Sea emerges
  • 400 BCE South America the Tiuahuanaco Peoples emerge in South America
  • 399 BCE Greece Socrates commits suicide
  • 399 BCE Greece Plato writes his famous Dialogues
  • 396 BCE Rome the Roman Empire finishes off the Etruscan Culture in Italy
  • 390 BCE Rome the Celtic Tribes invade, occupy and sack Rome under British kings Belinus and Brennius at the Battle of Allia but leave when the Romans pay a ransom
  • 371 BCE Greece Sparta defeated in Greece by other Greek states and the Hellots rebuild Mycenae (they have been Spartan slaves since 690 BCE!) Sparta never really recovers
  • 339 BCE Macedonia Philip becomes Regent of Macedonia
  • 339 BCE Greece Aristotle is Alexander the Great‘s tutor
  • 338 BCE Macedonia Philip and his son Alexander the Great defeat Greece
  • 335 BCE Europe Alexander the Great campaigns in the Danube against the Getae
  • 333 BCE Persia Alexander the Great defeats the Persian Empire
  • 332 BCE Egypt Alexander the Great conquers Canaan and Egypt
  • 331 BCE Persia Alexander the Great returns to Persia and destroys Persepolis
  • 330 BCE Persia Alexander the Great conquers Afghanistan which was part of the Persian Empire in recent times, but whose history goes back to the Indo European Tribes
  • 329 BCE Asia Minor Alexander goes on to conquer Central Asia
  • 326 BCE India Alexander the Great invades India
  • 325 BCE Greece Pytheas visits Britain which he calls Thule
  • 323 BCE Greece Alexander the Great dies and his empire is parceled up between his generals who all found Empires
  • 305 BCE Greece Ptolemaic Dynasty now rules in Egypt
  • 300 BCE Rome appropriates everything unto her, including all the indigenous gods and goddesses and religions, by naming them as Roman, she incorporates them along with their peoples
  • 300 BCE South America the Nazca Peoples emerge in South America
  • 300 BCE Mongolia iron weapons reach the tribes
  • 300 BCE Greece Euclid writing in Alexandria becomes the ‘Father of Modern Geometry’
  • 281 BCE Greece the Celtic Tribes under Cambulaes conquer Thrace and defeat the Greeks and the Romans
  • 280 BCE Rome conquers South Tuscany
  • 279 BCE Macedonia the Celtic Tribes invade Macedonia and defeat them in 278 BCE and kill their king Prolemy Keraunos, Alexander’s heir in Macedonia
  • 277 BCE Greece the Celtic Tribes sack Delphi and defeat Greece and Rome again. Their king Brennus dies and the Tribes withdraw and disengage, many settle in Anatolia and create the Celtic kingdom of Galatia, and some disperse to Egypt and others go to Carthage
  • 276 BCE Anatolia the Celtic Tribes in Anatolia fight against Syria
  • 264 BCE Rome now rules all of Italy and the Punic Wars with Carthage begin
  • 256 BCE Sicily the Romans capture Sicily from the Carthaginians
  • 250 BCE Israel the earliest Qumran texts written
  • 250 BCE Persia the Parthian Empire rises
  • 250 BCE South America the Maya Empire begins in South America
  • 240 BCE China the Chinese record the appearance of Halley’s Comet for the first time
  • 224 BCE Italy the Battle of Telamon between the Celts and the Romans. Cisalpine Gaul is won by Rome.
  • 223 BCE Rome the Roman army defeats the Gaulic Tribe of Senones. Rome has been very nervous of the Celts since their invasion of Rome in 390 BCE. As they are currently fighting with Hannibal against Rome in the Punic Wars, they are making a very nasty enemy of Rome!
  • 222 BCE Rome defeats the Celts in Galacia, Iberia and Northern Italy
  • 221 BCE China the Chinese Emperor Qin founds the Qin Dynasty, replacing the previous Zhou Dynasty. He unified the whole of China and started a massive agricultural expansion, built the Great Wall to repel the Eurasian Tribes, forged roads and wrote the Penal Code, all of which formed the basis of modern China. Qin unified the Chinese script and this is still in use today. He also burnt all the books in his new Empire except those on agriculture and divination. He also killed all the academics, 136 were buried alive, and he exiled his son for life because he protested about this. Qin died in 204 BCE
  • 219 BCE Gaul Hannibal forms an Alliance with the Celts against Rome. This is a blatant challenge to Rome who respond with a one hundred year conquest of The European tribes in Iberia
  • 202 BCE China the Chinese Han Dynasty embraces Confucianism
  • 200 BCE Rome the cult of Isis reaches Rome from Egypt and becomes universally important throughout the Roman Empire as a result
  • 200 BCE Israel the Book of Enoch written at Qumran
  • 200 BCE Rome wages continual slave raids into Gaul until 190 BCE
  • 200 BCE Greece mathematician Diocles writes about the circle
  • 200 BCE Greece geographer Pausanius writes about travel and the Greek and Roman world
  • 200 BCE Europe the Bulgars migrate into Europe from Central Asia
  • 200 BCE Europe the Gundestrup Cauldon is made by the Celts in Demnark
  • 200 BCE Britain the Battersea Shield is ritually deposited in the River Thames in Britain NB: dates uncertain – could range from 300 BCE to 100 AD
  • 196 BCE Rome takes over Ephesus to administer Asia Minor
  • 193 BCE Rome Hannibal is defeated by Rome and he committed suicide in exile
  • 165 BCE Israel the Maccabean Dynasty in Canaan revolts against the Greek Seleucid Empire
  • 160 BCE Europe the Celts increasingly build hill forts at this time, though they have been fortifying the age old encampments for a long time, this period sees a massive increase. In Britain over 1400 hill forts are constructed at this time, and all over Europe the building programme progresses apace. The ritual activity associated with boundaries which is age old, increasingly sees deposits of dog and horse legs and even human sacrifices buried at the bottom of the fortifications at this time.
  • 158 BCE Israel the Hasidim, or an offshoot of these Jewish priests leave Jerusalem to found Qumran?
  • 150 BCE Britain the Belgic Tribes invade Britain and British coinage series A to J was minted in response
  • 150 BCE Britain the Thames Helmet is ritually deposited in the river Thames in London
  • 150 BCE Britain Ritual deposits are made in Wales at Llyn Cerrig Bach
  • 150 BCE Britain Inhumation of the dead replaces cremation in Britain. Chariot Burials have been widespread across Eurasia for a few hundred years at this time
  • 149 BCE Rome Cato speaks in the Senate with his famous battle cry ‘”Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam.” – “I also think that Carthage must be destroyed”. He kept this up so ruthlessly, that a whole people were massacred.
  • 146 BCE Rome completely destroys Carthage and assimilated all Carthaginian territory and all of the Carthaginian gods
  • 146 BCE Rome conquers Greece and assimilated all the Greek gods. Back in Rome all of this literature is copied down to form the basis of their new Empire. The Romans are victorious across the Mediterranean
  • 136 BCE Rome defeats the Numantine Tribe and finally conquers Iberia. Back in Rome, all of the laws are codified to consolidate their new Empire. The Romans incorporate many deities into their new religion
  • 132 BCE Israel the revolt of Bar Kohba in Judea
  • 130 BCE Britain the British Tribes are becoming distinct in history and increasingly using coinage
  • 128 BCE Britain Beli Mawr is king in Britain
  • 121 BCE Rome conquers Southern Gaul where they find a sophisticated and settled society. The Romans carry out more extensive and well organised slave raids throughout Gaul
  • 118 BCE Rome founded Dertona to guard the route over the Alps and the Po Valley
  • 118 BCE Rome is trading widely across Gaul and Britain and as a result individuals appear in Roman writings – Commius and his son Tincomarus were Belgic Tribal aristocrats who acted as Roman allies and organised slave raids into Britain and then shipped them across the Channel from Hengistbury Head alongside hunting dogs, corn and metal in exchange for coloured glass, pottery, figs, spices, olives, wines and perfumes. Such luxurious items represent gift exchange to buy influence with the Belgic Tribes in Southern Britain
  • 117 BCE Rome sends citizens over to Carthage to found Roman settlements
  • 105 BCE Europe the Germanic Tribes are still migrating across Europe as they have always done, but now they meet Roman armies who slaughter them
  • 102 BCE Iberia Roman colonies established in Iberia to block the Volcae Tribe
  • 100 BCE South America the Moche emerge in South America
  • 100 BCE Britain the Danebury Hill Fort is destroyed in Britain possibly due to the growing trade with Rome and the growing demand for slaves and the Belgic Tribe looking for them!
  • 100 BCE Japan Asiatic, South Seas and Siberian peoples migrate into Japan
  • 100 BCE Yemen the Himyar Culture displaces the Sabaean Culture in Yemen and South Arabia
  • 100 BCE Britain Brochs or fortified houses are built all around Scotland and they may have been in use from about 400 BCE but the archaeology is uncertain at this time
  • 98 BCE Rome founds Eporedia to control the St. Bernard Pass and block the Salassi Tribe
  • 98 BCE Rome the city of Rome now has close on 2,000,000 slaves, with over 250,000 ready for the open market at any one time. So nearly 40% of the people in Rome at this time were slaves, and Rome was still hungry for more. Slave raids in Gaul and Iberia are still ongoing as they have been for the last two hundred years. Rome has forced the European Tribes back into Northern Gaul and as a result, the Tribes are now caught in the web of Roman trade, coinage and they respond by minting their own coins and building opidans, or fortified towns. The Tribes also increase ritual deposits of war booty and gold into rivers and lakes at this time, as well as human sacrifices which we find now as bog bodies. Wagons were also deposited. The Tribes also had shrines piled high with votive golden objects given to their deities, which of course the Romans plundered as fast as they found them! This practice was widespread in the ancient world and was World wide
  • 95 BCE Armenia Tigranes the Great becomes king of Armenia
  • 84 BCE Britain the Romans visit Cornwall to inspect the tin trade
  • 82 BCE Rome Sulla becomes Dictator of Rome and Julius Caesar makes his first appearance (on wrong side of Roman civil war against Sulla)
  • 73 BCE Rome Spartacus leads the slave revolt in Italy
  • 67 BCE Rome Pompey defeats the Ligurian pirates and the Mediterranean sea now belongs to Rome
  • 63 BCE Rome rebuilds the City of Troy
  • 63 BCE Rome Pompey defeats the Seleucid Empire in Anatolia and Canaan
  • 63 BCE Israel the Maccabean Jewish rule in Canaan ends
  • 60 BCE Rome the Roman Cicero wrote and spoke in the Senate
  • 59 BCE Britain Casswallan king of the Cassivellauni tribe in Britain
  • 59 BCE Gaul Julius Caesar begins the conquest of Gaul and kills 1,000,000 Gauls and enslaves another 1,000,000 Tribal people in slave raids. The Druids organise a resistance under Vercingetorix. Modern historians of course, date the origins of the Druids to the Celts, and believe they did not exist before some Greek writer mentions them! Sigh! How do they propose to prove this? Can they prove that the builders of Stonehenge were not called Druids? They cannot say anything on this either way because they do not know! Do they know what the early peoples of Europe and Eurasia called their Shamans? Of course they don’t! So how can they prove that the Druids only arrived in Europe with the Celts – what ‘invasions’ again? The European and Eurasian Tribes were constantly on the move as always, moving about and mingling with one another, swapping marriage partners, trading and just getting on with it. I think the academics have muddled up Hippies and Punks again. If you can’t prove it, don’t claim it! Of course, this deliberate academic confusion means that today, we cannot even talk about the Celts and the Druids because, the historians claim, we cannot define the term adequately, so ?the Celts didn’t exist ?there was never such an established entity anyway because these people were just Barbarians who would soon be swept away by the ‘far superior Empire of Rome’ and good riddance? How politically expedient! Well a Shaman by any other name… and a Tribe by any other name…
  • 59 BCE Gaul list of Gaulish Tribes
  • 57 BCE Britain the Bellovaci Tribe migrates to Britain from Belgium causing local warfare. Rome drives all before her
  • 57 BCE Israel Rome conquers Judea and kills and enslaves many thousands of people
  • 55 BCE Rome Julius Caesar mentions the Sicambri Tribe who seem to have quite a genealogy!
  • 55 BCE Rome the Roman Seneca writes and speaks in the forum
  • 54 BCE Britain Commius falls out with Julius Caesar and mints coinage of the Atrebates in Britain. Undaunted Julius Caesar defeats his former allies the Belgic Tribes and destroys the Veneti and invades Britain. Cassivellaunos is defeated in Kent, but the British Tribes unite to push Caesar off the Island eventually. Julius busies himself in Gaul by the total extermination of the Gallathaea Tribe, who have disapeared off the map so completely they do not even warrant a Google entry! Julius and his army slaughter over 400,000 Gallathaea because they are migrating through Gaul as they have always done, and Julius doesn’t want them to. Historians believe that only about 40 individuals survived the slaughter, which was only a little local massacre for our Hero Julius after all!
  • 53 BCE Rome Roman general Crassus is defeated at the Battle of Carrhae in Parthia making Caesar’s exploits seem remarkable. From this point on, events conspire to pitchfork Caesar forward until he is literally unstoppable
  • 52 BCE Gaul Vercingetorix is taken prisoner by Julius Caesar after the Battle of Alesia. Rome has conquered Gaul. As every major Tribe was fighting with Vercingetorix at this point, this Battle is the major defeat of the European Tribes by Rome and a major turning point in Caesar’s rise to power. They fight on of course, and many even survive after the fall of Rome 400 years later, even if they have ‘become Romanised’ by then, but their ultimate destruction is at the hands of historians, ancient and modern, who remained so beglamoured of Rome that to this day they cannot bring themselves to admit the genocide and horror perpetrated by their heroes. Anyway, they so abhor ‘Barbarians‘ and cannot bear to think of their ancestors as dirty, hairy and uncivilised. They have been reading Tacitus and the ancient Greek writers for over a millennia in their public schools of course, so these academics and the educated elite recoiled in horror at the thought their ancestors could be anything like the peoples they were lording it over, especially during the time of the British Empire. British Kings from the 15th century on become ‘fairies‘ and end up in Shakespeare as the early history of these Isles is diminished and relegated to myth. This is a common attitude in the next millennia, but becomes more acute in the millennia that follows. It is only now that these people are being reclaimed, but even so, the Tribal leaders from this time who fought Rome will not end up in any history book any time soon, so I will mention a few of them here – Cunobellin, Mandubracius Epaticcus Verica Eppillus Tasciovanus Antharius Tincomarus Llyr – there are millions more from all over the new Roman Empire whose names will never now be known! The Romans continue their slave raids throughout Europe, Anatolia, Eurasia, Canaan and North Africa for another few hundred years, of course, and country after country falls to Rome as it decimates and eliminates whole populations and destroys many more millions of peoples and Tribal areas completely. Marvelous people! But then Rome has only just begun!
  • 49 BCE Britain the Greek Diodorus writes about the Tin Trade in Cornwall
  • 49 BCE Egypt Caesar lands in Egypt and meets Cleopatra
  • 44 BCE Rome Julius Caesar assassinated.
  • 31 BCE Israel Earthquake in Judea
  • 30 BCE Egypt Cleopatra dead. Augustus is now Roman Emperor and Europe, Asia Minor and North Africa will face 400 years of Roman Rule
  • 7 BCE Greece the Greek Strabo is writing
  • 4 BCE Israel Herod the Great is dead in Judea

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