The Age of Iron

The pacifism of nomadic hunter gatherers, where sociability, hospitality and trade between groups is vital for survival, dies a slow death now. Isolated tribal groups will still operate under these principles, but they are becoming isolated from the land due to climate change and competition for resources which now begins to fuel the growth of Empires.

The migration of peoples continues apace in this millennia. The Beaker Culture reaches Ireland. Long barrows give way to individual round barrows, as powerful individual burials take precedence over tribal burial grounds. Henges begin to dominate the European horizon. In England, Wessex, at Wilsford and Swanwick pits have been found for post holes that pierce human flesh, possible Plutonian symbolism. There is also evidence for water, healing, votive offerings including metal and military deposits in water, birds as symbols revered in this period. This millennia is characterised by a wetter climate following the prolonged drought that so bedeviled the end of the 3rd Millennia. On Dartmoor, villages are abandoned as they become washed out by rain by 1159 BCE. At Glastonbury, boat burials have been discovered aligned to the Tor, an area which would have been underwater in winter at this time.

Also, the land is being parceled up in Britain at this time, forcing nomadic roaming to finally cease completely, as the sad remains at Tormarton show when 5 skeletons were found of people who had been building a land boundary, but were killed and dumped into their ditch which was filled in afterwards. Tormarton means the ‘boundary farmstead by the pool where the thorn trees grow’. The Dover boat made of oaks and withies also dates to this time. Flag Fen dates to the end of this time period and it may represent the appeasing of the water deities with dykes to control floods. The worship of water and springs dates to this time. The Caergwrle Bowl is made in Wales, a boat shaped cauldron. In Gaul, healing sanctuaries are established at thermal sites.

The Trans European cultures, Tumulus, Urnfield and Hallstatt, the inheritors of the Beaker Culture, now cover vast areas for trade and travel at this time. Specific rituals which appear to have originated in the British Isles over the previous millennia also spread throughout Europe at this time. Ancient tales of the Hesperides, Avalon and the famous Temple of Apollo are believed to refer to Stonehenge and Britain, ironically this is a time when the influence of Stonehenge is believed to be on the wane as reverence for watery places gains in influence. The White Horse of Uffington is built in Britain by the end of this time period as the Iron Age begins and evidence for Epona and the horse is demonstrated.

The European cultures of Europe fuse from the transient and mysterious origins to become a true Empire, despite the absence of the usual accoutrements that so impress the academics. The effect of this European Empire, and the vast and ancient knowledge it represents, are still felt today despite the rigorous attempts of subsequent elites to eradicate it and write it out of history. Bronze helmets, or wizard’s hats have been found all over Europe dating to 1,300 BCE, with incredibly complex 19 year lunar cycles uniting the sun and the moon intricately patterned onto them. This discovery will later be credited to the Greek Meton in 432 BCE, but as the first lesson in history teaches us, this 19 year cycle was clearly known to the wizards of Western Europe a thousand years before Meton wrote his manuscripts. We have already seen the complex Pythagorean geometry used in the construction of Stonehenge from 4,000 BCE onwards, but yet again, the discovery of this geometry is attributed to the Greeks over a thousand years later. Why? The 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 8th and 9th lessons of history apply here!

These innovations in science and astrological knowledge were unknown outside of the British Isles before 3,000 BCE, and unless they can be demonstrated to have originated in the hypothetical proto Indus Valley Cultures or proto Harappan Cultures, both of which flowered after Stonehenge but the proto cultures that proceeded all these other cultures still remain lost to history. These scientific and astrological discoveries, the use of gold in burials and techniques for embossing gold could be rare examples of true ‘firsts in history’ and they belong to British Culture. However, I do bear in mind my own ‘first lesson in history’ but at least we now have an accurate time line for these ancient cultures mapped out, and it does tend to turn accepted history on its head!

Pointed wizard hats made from felt may have been part of the cultures of the Northern Hemisphere for millennia, of course. The Caucasian mummies from the Chinese desert from about 3,000 to 400 AD wear them, as do Altai Ice Princesses. This is obviously a Stone Age survival missed by history until recently, and still very much alive in our culture today, as Tolkein and Harry Potter demonstrate so effortlessly.

The reach of territory covered by these proto Celts, and the extent of the European Empire is astounding and still taking people by surprise today, especially in China! This must surely raise suspicions about the origins of the early populations in Europe and the Steppes, and their close links to the Kurgans Scythians Sarmacians Hittites and possibly the Parthians Jirofts Elamites Cimmerians as well? The Sumerians claim in their myths that their ancestors come from Dilmun, and these people too may well have had contact with the Indus Valley Civilisation just a short boat ride away. However, academics tend to dismiss such myths as a matter of course, but the cultural similarities and the fact that all these early peoples speak the same root language does raise interesting questions across whole areas of the ancient world. When we remember that most of these tribes and peoples were still mostly nomadic, even those in the cities tended to settle for a bit and then travel for a bit, exchanging marriage partners and trading widely, it is easy to see them merging into one vast collection of related tribal groups, as is so amply demonstrated in Eurasia. The Northern European cultures also remain largely unaffected by the catastrophes about the destroy the Mediterranean cultures, however badly they are affected by climate change and the collapse of ancient trade routes. This catastrophe does cut them off from the historical record, which may explain why historians ignore them so determinedly.

  • The eleventh lesson in history is to beware thinking of different cultures as different races. Hippies and Punks are not different races, to use a modern analogy.

There is only one race of Homo Sapiens Sapiens. The Toba super volcano bottleneck in the distant past reduced our number down to as few as 2,000 souls, but even if 10,000 of us survived, we were all the same species at that time and we are all descended from those few survivors. Today we are all no more that 14th cousins no matter where we originate from.

  • The twelfth lesson in history is that there are many mysteries which cannot yet be explained.

For example, where did the Sumerians really come from? Are all the nomad tribes of the Steppes, the near East, Eurasia and Europe really all one people? Did the Beaker Culture arrive in Europe or was this a just new wave of cultural thought and industrial development amongst existing peoples? Was there really a Northern European Civilisation that has been suppressed? Did this Proto Celtic Empire really discover complex cycles of the moon and Pythagorean geometry and teach it to the Egyptians and the Phoenecians and the Minoans? ?Did they teach it to China or did China learn it from the proto Harappan Culture? ?Did the Proto Harappan Culture teach this to the Proto Celts and to China? ?Are there sunken and completely unknown cities in the Gulf of Cambay and did they influence the Harappan and Indus Valley Cultures? Is this where the Myth of Atlantis really comes from?

As many cultures are about to be destroyed in this time period because of the growth of Empire, the catastrophic climate changes, earthquakes and the extension of warfare, and also because the Island of Thera is about to erupt in 1,644 BCE, this very destruction becomes a fascinating clue to the confusion of origins and mythologies, even languages? These struggles may also provide an explanation why so many cultures are overlooked, even suppressed in our history books today, which has the effect of entrenching myths and stories so deeply in peoples’ imagination, they can never be expunged?

So, to continue…

In the late Bronze Age, copper smelting is universal and charcoal develops in Eurasia and spreads throughout the Old World, a precursor to the Iron Age by about 1,200 BCE.

Mycenaean Greece flourishes and dies between 1,600 BCE and 1,100 BCE. The very first Greek oracular site is probably located at Treponius, eight miles south of Delphi and was active long before Delphi, and founded on the Omphalos or Navel of the World which maybe related to worship of the Mother Goddess. The complex at Treponius may have been the original oracle, and was also called Leucorrhea or the Wolves Place. It comprises excavated caves and tunnels and an underground river, and the rituals may well have used henbane, thornapple, opium, hemlock, lupin seeds, belladonna and hellebore as hallucinogens to engage in seances or to re-enact the Greek myths. Oracular sites proliferate throughout Greece at this time and culminate in the oracle at Delphi in the next millennia. There is a sacred cave at Mount Parnassus at this time linked to the Python or Dragon whose rituals centered around the spirits of the dead and Gaia. There is evidence for deep pits to contact ?ancestors or ?spirits proliferating around the British isles at this time. The Greeks also adopt an alphabet as writing starts its inexorable journey into history.

In China, the Shang Dynasty becomes the first dynasty to consolidate civilisation in China between 1,760 BCE and 1,050 BCE before it is replaced by the Zhou Dynasty. China is not a closed civilisation at this time, so its influence is still felt along the Silk Road and amongst the nomadic tribal groups roaming across the Steppes and filtering back and forwards with the Near East and Europe at this time. Chinese archaeology reveals royal pyramidal tombs indicative of ancestor worship, with human and animal sacrifices in elite tombs. We also find bronze weapons, chariots believed to have been inspired by Egyptian chariots, which probably explain the pyramid tombs as well. However, it is thought that chariots originate in Kazakhstan, so this may be a nearer source for such influences. No matter, the Shang dynasty develops the chariot to accommodate three warriors abreast and use their devastating military skills to invade new territories and consolidate their power. Huge volumes of oracle bones indicate the use of about 5000 different written characters, most of which are still in use in China today.

Mongolian Culture begins to build megaliths by 1,000 BCE. The Tibetan culture was protected by its mountains and hidden in this time period.

The cultures of Sumer and Akkad which had held sway for over a millennia give way to the Babylonians by 1,900 BCE. The Amorites are assimilated in this struggle as the Babylonian king Hammurabi emulates Sargon and invades his neighbours. So we can see in operation here the tenth lesson in history, where peoples use the written word to study their forebears and attempt to copy them in the development of civilisation. The Libraries of the Mesopotamian region are still being excavated and show that the knowledge of earlier cultures in the region survive to form the later cultures. They are all written in the Hittite language in cuneiform. Hammurabi also codifies the law system of Babylon. In Iran the Elamite culture is well established.

In Hattusa the heavily fortified massive city of the Hittites will be destroyed by the Sea Peoples who devastate the Hittite Empire towards the end of this time period, but for now the city covers 400 acres and contains a water and sewage system and is dedicated to Greek gods. The extensive libraries of Hattusa survived for archaeologists to discover in modern times, and they detail a law based on compensation for victims which was dynamic and evolving. The Hittites declared that they avoided war by the use of political treaties, indeed the Hittites will force Rameses II into a treaty in 1274 BCE, which is now known as the ‘first in history’, but remember our first lesson! This is the first ‘recorded or written’ peace treaty in history! However, the Hittites were very powerful warriors who used their superiority in chariots to terrify the Syrians and the Egyptians. They had powerful leaders who rebuilt entire armies after defeats and go on to victories which amazed the ancient world. Unfortunately, when they attacked Syria, the captives brought back plague to Hattusa with devastating results. When the Sea Peoples destroyed them, the survivors of this once magnificent Empire were reduced to one single valley in Anatolia. In Anatolia, undeciphered hieroglyphs appear at this time.

All the devastation after the erupution of Thera may give us some clues about the origins of the Sea Peoples, who remain a great puzzle to academics. However, it is not unreasonable to suggest that vast amounts of displaced peoples would band together at such a time, probably with some sea going vessels from Minoan and other destroyed cultures banding together to form a power block, which would maraud around the Mediterranean trying to find a safe haven or carve out a territory. Many experienced warriors displaced from cultures destroyed at this time could have been amongst them, and it is not a leap to propose that if a group of such figures banded together to forge a new home they would cause terror and war wherever they landed. Some academics believe the Etruscans and the Phoenicians have their origins in this massive displacement of peoples, and there may be others dotted around in this time period.

In the Americas, the Olmecs appear by 1,200 BCE. The other populations in the Americas appear to be mostly nomadic and tribal at this time with ceremonial ritual sites used in the same way as the Old World. The Negroid Olmec heads and the similarities between Old and New World Culture seen in this culture may lead someone to ponder if some of the Sea Peoples passed out into the Atlantic and were carried across to the Americas? This is most controversial, of course.

In Australia, the Aborigines are safely protected from all the carnage. In the Far East Eurasia is quietly getting on with life and having its own local wars as cultures struggle against one another. However, the protection of the land mass and the absence of the effects of the volcanoes and the earthquakes leaves them with only the climate to contend with. The sheer vastness of the land mass and the defense provided by impenetrable mountains and deserts protect them to some extent, and the Silk Road continues to allow trade, so vast areas of the world are quietly getting on with things as the Mediterranean world explodes.

In Africa, nomadic and settled peoples co-exist. The Swahili Peoples emerge into a high civilisation at this time, and they are trading extensively with the Indian Vedic Culture. India is using iron by 1800 BCE. Egypt begins the Middle Kingdom and Thebes and Karnak begin their long construction, and Abydos continues as the cult place of Osiris. The Kingdoms of Kush and Nubia are growing and thriving in this period, though Egypt begins to infiltrate and eventually dominate both kingdoms, which will have repercussions later on. The fabled Land of Punt dates to this time, but no one knows anything about it, though the suspicions for Ethiopia, Yemen and/or Eritrea as possible contenders abound! The Nok People are using iron by 1200 BCE.

A character from the Bible enters the narrative here as the Bahr Yussuf canal and lake is dug in Egypt. The name means the Waterway of Joseph, and this canal was a sophisticated system to harvest water in case of drought and famine, thought to have been built between 1,850 BCE and 1,650 BCE, though we know it was started by a Pharaoh, it was finished and named by a guy called Joseph, a Semitic name. We know from the Bible that Joseph traveled to Egypt, but as usual with this source, we have no method of secure dating. However, we do know that Egypt was concerned about drought and climate change after the chaos they suffered in the wake of the collapse of the Old Kingdom and the eruption of Thera, and we do know the dates for this. This canal can be dated, and its name is certainly not Egyptian, but it is still in use today.

This is a curious coincidence! Biblical archaeologists are all over this, of course. They believe that as a reward for building this waterway, Joseph was given permission to settle his family in Avaris, because the ruins there reveal Semitic burials. One burial in particular attracts their attention because it has a pyramidal top, a vandalised statue of a red haired Semitic figure in a multi coloured robe, is obviously rich – and the bones have been removed – obviously they believe due to the escape of the Jewish population under Ramses II. Bible archaeologists also point out that a tomb found in Sakhara of a visier of Akhenaton‘s uses the Canaanite word for God ‘Appah El’ in one of the inscriptions found there. If Akhenaton had a Canaanite visier in 1353 BCE or thereabouts, he may have been a Hyskos king, or at least influenced by the Hyskos. His son Tutankhamen was forced to reinstate the old gods of Egypt, but the idea of the one god had been born and certainly left Egypt with the Jewish peoples and Moses. No wonder the Biblical scholars are all over this because the Biblical story hangs together almost completely over the historical structure of this time period. Thus the twelfth lesson and the ninth lesson of history come together here in a perfect illustration of each other.

However, to continue… and the bear in mind the seventh lesson in history… the period between the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom in Egypt is most interesting. The First Intermediate Period comes at the time when the Old Kingdom collapsed due to wars, volcanic eruption, climate change and poor leadership, and the Middle Kingdom takes over. The Second Intermediate Period appears after the end of the Middle Kingdom in 1,641 BCE, four years before the eruption of Thera, and thought to be due to the invasion of the Hyskos, but maybe due to the fall out from Thera, the collapse of the Minoan culture and the disruption of trade with the Mediterranean in the Delta region, a shady time when the truth is hidden from view.

The Hyskos rule the Egyptian delta for a time, and they become the 15th, 16th and 17th dynasties of Egypt. They are Semitic and Asiatic peoples whose capital is at Avaris. It is not a stretch to assume that Egypt is in great difficulty during these two intermediate periods and that the Egyptians lost the Nile Delta to invaders as a result. What is interesting is that Avaris is the capital of the Hyskos, its ruins reveal Canaanite tombs there. Recent excavations at Avaris reveal several seals with the Jewish name of Yacov (Jacob) on them and also some Minoan wall paintings, proving the extensive nature of Minoan trade at this time.

To go off on a Greek tangent here for a moment, the connection to Mycenaen Greece via the Minoans is very strong at this time, and the tombs found by Schleimann at Mycenae reveal tomb stones depicting the crossing of the Sea of Reeds by the escaping ?Israelites and the waters closing over the Egyptian chariots, though why these depictions should appear in Greece is most unclear. Simca Jacobvichi explains that the Mycenaen tombs Schleimann found contained a lot of Egyptian gold, and he believes the Mycenaens built the Ark of the Covenant and that the Israelites, the Mycenaens and Minoans used an alphabetic script, so there is another story here that needs some expansion. I was intrigued to hear Simcha Jacobvichi explain that Homer called the Mycenaens ‘the People of Dan‘ which might link to all sorts of European influence here which has dropped out of official histories. The goddess Danu turns out to be both Irish and Harappan, indeed she appears throughout the Celtic World, and she may well have also spent some time in Greece which is of course in between the two, so we can see just how old the origins may be here. The Celtic Greek history has never been written but there are pointers everywhere connecting the two, both connecting via their Proto Indo Eurpean origins. We may have another case of hippies and punks here, then they are all the same peoples in early antiquity and the historians have tied us all up in little confused knots yet again, trying to convince us they are different races which is of course impossible!

To continue…

Ahmose I is credited with the destruction of the Hyskos and their expulsion from Egypt around 1450 BCE, and many people believe this is the Exodus proper. Ahmose means the ‘Moon is born’, and there is some suggestion that it also means ‘the brother of Moses’. Moses as a name is pretty close to both Amhose and Rameses (Ramoses), and these two dynasties are strangely connected and it is well worth reading these histories in detail. The city of Avaris is destroyed by Rameses II about 1270 BCE, when he builds the city of Pi Rameses after he regains control of Egypt, and as the Bible claims that the Israelites were forced to build the city of Pi Rameses, it may be that there were several Exodus’. Rameses II’s father, Rameses 1, the founder of the 19th dynasty is described as a soldier born near Avaris, not of royal blood, but who comes to the Egyptian throne after the debacle of Ahkenaton. This description seems to describe the struggle with the Hyskos quite dramatically, and also casts some very interesting light on the 18th dynasty. The chaos caused by Akhenaton’s adoption of ‘one god’ and the disruption of the Hyskos or Semitic period cannot be underestimated for the Egyptians, and their response is Rameses I and II, aptly illustrating the fourth lesson in history.

This is another mystery to add to the numerous other mysteries which arise in this time period and so confuse our histories. This confusion may underlie the twelfth lesson in history and explain some the reason for all the confusion. If Akhenaton was a Hyskos Pharoah with a Canaanite visier, then all sorts of questions wriggle out of the woodwork of history. The 18th dynasty covers some very interesting over lap with the Hyskos dynasties as follows:

  • 1660 BCE Italy eruption of Vesuvius
  • 1600 BCE Greece Mycenaean Greece arises after the destruction of the Minoan Empire
  • 1600 BCE Asia Minor the Hittites invade Canaan, Egypt and Babylon
  • 1650 BCE Egypt Bahr Yussuf waterway completed
  • 1650 BCE Egypt Kush invades Egypt as far as modern day Cairo
  • 1644 BCE Mediteranean eruption of Thera the end Middle Kingdom of Egypt and the end of Minoan Culture
  • 1620 – 1534 BCE Egypt the 15th, 16th and 17th dynasties of the Hyskos
  • 1570 BCE Egypt the Kamose Stela records battles with Asiatics (Delta) and Nubians (South)
  • 1550 BCE Canaan Jericho abandoned due to an Earthquake?
  • 1550 – 1292 BCE Egypt the 18th dynasty
  • 1530 BCE Egypt Ahmose defeats Hyskos ?and enslaves Jews for aiding and abetting the Hyskos?
  • 1502 BCE Egypt Tuthmose II conquers Kush as did his father before him
  • 1500 BCE Britain the influence of Stonehenge begins to wane ?post Thera effect? as old gods have failed and new ones are required? ?end of drought period and the beginning of watery gods and spiritual practice?
  • 1500 BCE India Indo Aryan migrations in India and the rise of the Vedic Culture and chariots arrive in India
  • 1478 BCE Canaan Tuthmose III wages war with Megiddo
  • 1450 BCE Egypt Tuthmose III Egyptian Napoleon conquers Nubia and Near East as far as Mutanni Kingdom. He revolutionised his army with recursive bows, bronze axe heads and six spoked chariot wheels
  • 1400 BCE Egypt invades Canaan again
  • 1400 BCE Greece trades with Colchis for gold ?Jason and the Argonauts?
  • 1353 – 1334 BCE Egypt Akhenaton Pharaoh. ?Did the eruption of Thera represent the death of the old gods and the demonstration of another more powerful deity?
  • 1300 BCE Canaan about thirty city states occupy the region, each with its own king and palace, surrounded by small towns and villages. Each city state was about 1000 square kilometres in size and all confirmed by archaeology
  • 1300 BCE? Egypt Rameses I forces Jews to build Pi Rameses at site of Avaris ?because they aided the Hyskos? There are many theories possible here.
  • 1300 BCE? Egypt Moses pleads with Pharaoh to let his people go? or is this later?
  • 1292 – 1152 BCE Egypt the 19th dynasty of Rameses I and II and subsequent rulers
  • 1295 BCE Egypt Seti I campaigns in Syria and Sinai
  • 1250 BCE World the Annihilation of the Old World is seen at this time. The Hittites, Canaanites, Phillistines, Mycenaean Greeks, Amazons and many more peoples are destroyed at this time. Egypt is forced back and looses control of Canaan at this time, as recorded in the temple of Medinet Habu. Hazor is burnt to the ground in Canaan. This is a time of great earthquakes and war. Trade routes collapse, even though they are quickly recovered by new peoples. Great leaders and new empires and clusters of displaced peoples take rapid advantage of the devastation, illustrating the fourth lesson in history yet again! The Northern kingdom of Israel is formed at this time in Samaria, Jezreel and Megiddo, and other virgin sites were chosen for the villages. Archaeology confirms the growth of an olive oil industry, surplus, trade and increasing riches, population and writing, confirmed also by Assyrian texts of the time which record trade with this region. Assyria was a rising force in the region at this time. The Southern kingdom of Judah is much poorer in comparison, but the two kingdoms are inhabited by the same people who share a common religion which was polytheistic and based on ancestor worship, with reverence given to stars, planets and mountains. Baal, symbolised by a bull was the main god of all Canaan at this time, with ElĂ‚ considered to be the main god overall. It is thought that the very earliest version of the Bible was compiled at this time.
  • 1250 BCE Greece Theseus and Achilles leave reputations that last into the Modern Age, and myths of devastated peoples haunt our imaginations to this day.
  • 1274 BCE Canaan Battle of Kadesh between Rameses II and the Hittites. The Chariot comes to its peak as a military machine during this battle. There are even more theories here, I will quote just three…
  • Theory one: ?When Rameses II returns to Egypt, did he leave Moses in control of Canaan? Moses is a derivative of an Egyptian name, and if he was a ?royal prince related to the Egyptian royal household, Rameses II may well have established him to govern this troubled area in return for territory, especially if he is part of the ‘establishment’. This whole area has been Egyptian territory since 1400 BCE anyway and many Egyptian archaeological remains confirm a large building programme initiated throughout this time. The archaeologist Flinders Petrie found a stelae at Thebes which seems to confirm this in the Ramesseum Temple there. We know that this was a time of warfare in Canaan, and the Bible tells us quite graphically that Moses destroyed the original inhabitants of the region to settle this land. Exodus’ description of the ten plagues accurately describes the phenomenon of the Thera eruption, and many people now believe that the Bible was written to justify the events leading up to the settlement of Canaan by the ‘Israelites’ when the Egyptian New Kingdom collapses under the Nubian invasions, so it maybe a propaganda document and a composite history cobbled together in a later period when the actual facts needed to be rearranged somewhat. The Bible is full of Egyptian mysticism as the Psalms to the sun god written by Akhenaton demonstrate. These were found inscribed on the walls of his tomb in Amarna. This is yet another mystery from this time period, illustrating the twelfth lesson very well and using the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th lessons of history all together to achieve a desired result!
  • Theory two: when KV5 was discovered and excavated recently, the mummy of the ?first son of Rameses Amunherkephushet was found with a massive head injury. Is this the Egyptian prince Moses killed? This son of Rameses II was a full adult aged about 30, with full pharonic power and in full command of the Egyptian army at the time and in control of the chariot legions in Pi Rameses. The inscription on the walls of Abu Simbel Temple confirms that Amunherkepushet was commanding the army at this time. ?Was he killed by Moses or did he fall from a chariot and die during the chase? Is this why Rameses II chased Moses out of Egypt or did Amunherkephushet and his army chase him out? ?Was Moses an Egyptian prince with full military power behind him? ?Did Egypt invade Israel to avenge the death of this son of Rameses II? ?Is this why Moses stays for forty years in the desert to avoid the Ramassean army or is he part of the Egyptian army? As Egypt controlled the whole of the Negev Desert at this time, it is hard to see how any nomadic people could escape their notice or remain hidden any where in this region. Joshua describes a seven year conquest of Canaan at this time with the destruction of over thirty cities, was he also part of the Egyptian army? Jericho is named in the Bible as one of the cities destroyed at this time, but archaeology proves that its walls collapsed due to earthquakes centuries before the time of Joshua. Many of the cities described in the Bible did not exist at this time, except Hatsoor where archaeologists can confirm destruction at this time, possibly by an Israelite ?or Egyptian? army. This again leads weight to the supposition that the Bible is a composite of histories, old and modern at the time, as well as many events which will not happen for over a millennia from this time period, and some events from the previous millennia. Many of the cities mentioned in the Bible were destroyed by other people, for example Medinat Habu which was destroyed by the Sea Peoples at this time. ?Was Moses a full son of Rameses II who had power in the region and rebelled, requiring Egypt to invade to crush this rebellion? More mysteries from this time period!
  • Theory three: ?The Canaanites and the Jews are the same people? DNA proves this today. The Canaanite cuneiform tablets excavated in Syria describe identical cultures with the Israelites, and archaeology proves there is a considerable movement of peoples between Canaan and Egypt at this time. They may be all Hyskos as far as the Egyptians were concerned, but the eleventh lesson in history means only that there was much war in the region at this time, as Joshua describes so accurately in the Bible. Was Moses allied with the Hyskos and had to leave Egypt when they were defeated? Is this why Egypt does not record him, but only records the destruction of cities in the region?
  • 1207 BCE Egypt invades Israel. Again? As the stelae of pharoah Merneptah records the ‘total destruction of the Israelites’ at this time, they are possibly part of a Canaanite uprising which Egypt swiftly puts down.
  • 1200 BCE Canaan the Phoenicians arrive. The original Ancient Mariners, they settle to develop a string of city states in the Levant, especially Tyre and Sidon, and across the Mediterranean as far as Gibraltar, establishing Carthage. They interbreed with the Canaanites and DNA proves that they are all Canaanites. They provide a wife to the king of Israel, Jezebel, by the end of this millennia, again proving the close links between these peoples. They may be connected to the Sea Peoples, and they are renowned for navigating by the North Star. Did they learn this from Britain when they took over the Minoan trade routes, or are they the remains of the Minoan sea captains who become part of the Sea Peoples when Thera erupts and then settle to become Phoenicians? More mysteries!
  • 1200 BCE Europe the Celts emerge from the Urnfield Culture in Europe and still have the water cult, worship of birds, boats and the sun, as well as cremation burials. In Britain, the Wessex Culture emerges
  • 1200 BCE World the Iron Age begins
  • 1186 BCE Egypt Rameses III is murdered by his harem and the Nubians conquer Egypt, and the New Kingdom ends, leaving Canaan to its own devices. The Nubians reign in Egypt until 752 BCE and Egypt enters the Third Intermediate Period. Tanis is rebuilt at this time.
  • 1186 BCE Asia Minor the traditional date for the fall of Troy
  • 1175 BCE Egypt the Sea Peoples invade Egypt and are repulsed, but they then go onto destroy the Hittites, the Mycenaean Greeks and the Mitanni people.
  • 1159 BCE Britain more Dartmoor villages abandoned washed out by rain. It maybe that a Comet’s tail smothered Earth at this time, adding to people’s misery.
  • 1100 BCE Canaan farming starts in earnest in Canaan as people survive the devastation and entrench. Olive oil production forms the basis of a complex society in the region. The Israelites destroy the Philistines, who were defeated by Rameses II and then the Israelites, but they were an established culture with an olive oil trade monopoly, superior metal work and advanced weaponry. They worshiped a female deity and showed influences from Greek and Egyptian civilisations.
  • 1050 BCE China the Shang dynasty in China falls to the Jo or Zhou Dynasty
  • 1050 BCE Greece enters its Dark Age

There are mysteries in this time period aplenty, but the time line appears to iron events out enough for us to glimpse the truth of our past, even if it is through seven veils of subterfuge and intrigue!

To continue…

The Kingdom of Kush invades Lower Egypt in 1650 BCE, and now we have a time line, the eruption of Thera and the collapse of the Middle Kingdom comes together here. As the Hyskos invade the Delta, Kush invade from the upper reaches of the Nile. This is a difficult time for Egypt and the New Kingdom regains control only to collapse again in the Third Intermediate Period by 1070 BCE.

The Sumerians are still writing their myths and affairs onto clay tablets with cuneiform. In Canaan, the first city states appear and the Canaanites develop an alphabet of 40 letters and become the first people in the local area to abandon the use of cuneiform. The Canaanites and the Phoenicians are now trading over a massive area on land and by sea.

The Phoenicians invent our modern alphabet around 1200 BCE, probably using Elamite or Minoan symbols, another script which is still undeciphered, but as they have disappeared off the scene due to the Thera eruption, the new peoples are only too happy to take over! The Minoan culture did resurge with new pottery depicting sea creatures and human sacrifice discovered at Knossus, the remains preserved by an earthquake.

Archaeologists believe the Minoans huge trade network included the British isles, so the loss of these peoples allowed the Phoenicians to prosper. Did they also trade as far as the British Isles? Is this where they learnt to navigate by the North Star?

The Phoenicians have been credited with the invention of purple dye from Murex sea snails, but excavations show that the Minoans were exporting vast amounts to Egypt during the bronze age, and factories for farming these sea snails have been found in Crete indicating this expert industry, where 12,000 snails were required to dye the hem of a single garment.

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