From http://www.ncrm.ac.uk/news/show.php?article=5305 Article by Paul Stoneman and Patrick Sturgis from the NCRM Hub, University of Southampton. This article also appears in the Winter 2012 issue of the MethodsNews newsletter (opens a .pdf file).
The appropriate place for Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) in modern healthcare continues to emerge as a source of controversy in policy debates. The issue attracted media attention again recently, following the appointment in 2012 of the new Secretary of State for Health, Jeremy Hunt, who supports the availability of homeopathic cures through the NHS. Read the rest of this entry »
Archive for category Research into Homeopathy
With thanks to Christopher M Johnson, The British Medical Journal 27.11.12:
From http://www.bmj.com/content/345/bmj.e6184/rr/616928‘… Once again it must be said that what passes for ‘scientific’ discussion amongst homeopathic critics is almost entirely lacking in substance. Scientific statements, by definition, must be precise and testable. Unfortunately, criticisms of homeopathy rarely pass this test. Read the rest of this entry »
The agent Latrodectus and canine paecilomycotic eclampsia as a laboratory model in the survey of treatment for mycoses and parasitic diseases
[The agent Latrodectus and canine paecilomycotic eclampsia as a laboratory model in the survey of treatment for mycoses and parasitic diseases]. [Article in Russian] [No authors listed]Med Parazitol (Mosk). 2012 Apr-Jun;(2):36-9.
Abstract: The extragent used to prepare a Latrodectus mactans hydrocarbon extract is a multicomponent system composed of alkanes, alkenes, and arenes. More than 100 compounds were identified in the hydrocarbon extract (petroleum).
The petroleum matrix of Latrodectus mactans was first obtained to manufacture homeopathic remedies. The authors could prepare the first Russian homeopathic medicine from Latrodectus mactans, which proved to be effective in treating canine eclampsia.
Canine experiments provide a rationale for the authors’ choice as the only homeopathic remedy among thousand known drugs to treat female eclampsia. It is Latrodectus mactans that is in the list of homeopathic medicines permitted for use in accordance with Order No. 335 (Supplement 2) of the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of Russia, issued on November 29, 1995. It is manufactured from Latrodectus mactans living in the USA.
[Procedure for Latrodectus reproduction in the laboratory setting and the preparation of the first Russian matrix from its venom to manufacture homeopathic remedies with antiparasitic activity]. [Article in Russian] [No authors listed]Med Parazitol (Mosk). 2012 Apr-Jun;(2):40-5.
Abstract: The investigation was undertaken to study the biology and ecology of Latrodectus, the possibilities of its importation to Russia from other countries, to breed Latrodectus in the laboratory setting, and to design the first homeopathic matrix of Latrodectus to manufacture homeopathic remedies.
The authors were the first to devise a method for Latrodectus breeding in the laboratory setting of Moscow and its vicinities. The Latrodectus bred in the laboratory is suitable to manufacture drugs and in captivity they do not lose its biological activity. The authors were the first to prepare a homeopathic Latrodectus matrix for homeopathic medicines, by using the new Russian extragent petroleum. Chromatography mass spectrometry was used to identify more than a hundred chemical compounds in the Russian petroleum.
The biological activity of the petroleum Latrodectus matrix for the manufacture of homeopathic remedies was highly competitive with that of the traditional Latrodectus venom matrix made using ethyl alcohol. The homeopathic Latrodectus matrix made using glycerol lost its biological activity because of glycerol.
The biological activity of homeopathic matrixes made from Latrodectus inhabiting the USA, Uzbekistan, and the south of Russia and from that bred in the laboratory was studied. The homeopathic matrix made from the Latrodectus living in the Samarkand Region, Republic of Uzbekistan, has the highest biological activity.
The targets of information-carrying nanodomains. Czerlinski G, Ypma T. Source Department of Biology, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225, USA.J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2012 Mar;12(3):2239-47.
Here we discuss how these nanodomains interact with their targets. Our assumption is that these targets are similar to nanodomains, thereby enhancing their interaction.
We use a simple system involving only one enzyme reaction to model the normal, the diseased and the enhanced recovery phases. For the healthy phase, a range of initial enzyme concentrations lead to a stationary state.
We adjust the initial enzyme concentration to find an ‘ideal’ value, for which at stationary state the enzyme cycle provides the identical substrate concentration for each of the adjoining components.
We simulate the diseased phase by starting a fast isomerization between the free active enzyme and its inactive form. At the end of this phase another stationary state is reached. In the subsequent recovery phase the fast movement of the excited states in the homeopathic solution rapidly converts the inactive form of the enzyme to its electronically excited state, which then converts to active free enzyme.
At the end of this phase we return to the stationary state reached at the end of the healthy phase, that is, complete recovery to health.
This simple model omits many of the complexities of a live organism. However, the elements of homeopathic action at the target can be observed clearly, as shown by a number of simulations.
Impact of physician preferences for homeopathic or conventional medicines on patients with musculoskeletal disorders: results from the EPI3-MSD cohort
Impact of physician preferences for homeopathic or conventional medicines on patients with musculoskeletal disorders: results from the EPI3-MSD cohort. Rossignol M, Begaud B, Engel P, Avouac B, Lert F, Rouillon F, Bénichou J, Massol J, Duru G, Magnier AM, Guillemot D, Grimaldi-Bensouda L, Abenhaim L; for the EPI3-LA-SER group.harmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2012 Jul 11. doi: 10.1002/pds.3316. [Epub ahead of print]. Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Canada; LA-SER Centre for Risk Research, Montreal, Canada. Michel.Rossignol@CRR-Intl.com.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of physician practicing preferences (PPP) in primary care for homeopathy (Ho), CAM (Complementary and alternative medicines) with conventional medicine (Mx) or exclusively conventional medicine (CM) on patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), with reference to clinical progression, drug consumption, side effects and loss of therapeutic opportunity.
Changes in chronic low back pain and cardiovascular risk factors using a homeopathic human chorionic gonadotropin-based weight loss program: a case report
Changes in chronic low back pain and cardiovascular risk factors using a homeopathic human chorionic gonadotropin-based weight loss program: a case report. Morningstar MW, Strauchman MN. Chiropractor, Private Practice of Chiropractic Medicine, Natural Wellness and Pain Relief Centers of Michigan, Grand Blanc, MI 48439. J Chiropr Med. 2011 Dec;10(4):322-326.
CASE REPORT: A 52-year-old man reported to an integrative medical center (including chiropractic and osteopathic physicians) for chronic low back pain. The patient reported a 20-year history of chronic, episodic low back pain. A course of spinal manipulative therapy was delivered; however, because of the lack of resolution of symptoms, a radiographic examination was performed, the result of which was essentially normal. Laboratory studies demonstrated hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, uricemia, and elevated blood glucose. A dietary change in treatment approach was selected.
INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME: The patient was instructed to take 10 drops of a homeopathic human chorionic gonadotropin product under the tongue 5 times daily. His total daily energy (calorie) was limited for the first 30 days of the program while on the homeopathic product. After 4 months, the patient lost a total of 71 lb, pain and disability scores improved, and reductions in serum cardiovascular markers were noted.
CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that weight loss seemed to affect the patient’s chronic low back pain and cardiovascular risk factors.
Adverse drug reactions to anthroposophic and homeopathic solutions for injection: a systematic evaluation of German pharmacovigilance databases
Adverse drug reactions to anthroposophic and homeopathic solutions for injection: a systematic evaluation of German pharmacovigilance databases. Jong MC, Jong MU, Baars EW. Department Healthcare and Nutrition, Louis Bolk Institute, Driebergen, The Netherlands; Department Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden. email@example.com. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2012 Jun 13. doi: 10.1002/pds.3298.
PURPOSE: Medicinal solutions for injection are frequently applied in anthroposophic medicine and homeopathy. Despite their extensive use, there is little data published on the safety of these products. Therefore, we investigated the safety of anthroposophic and homeopathic solutions for injection through a systematic evaluation of adverse drug reactions (ADRs).
METHODS: ADRs were extracted from the pharmacovigilance databases of eight German manufacturers. Analysed ADRs included case reports in humans only, (spontaneous) case reports from post-marketing surveillance, literature and clinical/safety trials.
RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2009, in total, 303 million ampoules for injection were sold, and 486 case reports were identified, corresponding to a total number of 1180 ADRs. Of all case reports, 71.8% (349/486) included ADRs that were listed (e.g. stated in package leaflet), and 9.5% (46/486) of the reports were classified as serious. The most frequently reported ADRs were pruritus, followed by angioedema, diarrhoea and erythema. A total of 27.3% (322/1180) were localized reactions for example; application or injection site erythema, pain, swelling and inflammation. The overall reporting rate of ADRs associated with injections was less than 4 per 1 million sold ampoules and classified as very rare.
CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic evaluation demonstrated that the reporting rate of ADRs associated with anthroposophic and homeopathic solutions for injection is very low. Most reported ADRs were listed, and one quarter consisted of local reactions. These findings suggest a low risk profile for solutions for injection as therapeutically applied in anthroposophic medicine and homeopathy.
Identification of Medicinally Active Ingredient in Ultradiluted Digitalis purpurea: Fluorescence Spectroscopic and Cyclic-Voltammetric Study
Identification of Medicinally Active Ingredient in Ultradiluted Digitalis purpurea: Fluorescence Spectroscopic and Cyclic-Voltammetric Study. Sharma A, Purkait B. Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, India. J Anal Methods Chem. 2012;2012:109058. Epub 2012 Mar 26.
Abstract: Serially diluted and agitated (SAD) drugs available commercially are in use with great faith because of the astonishing results they produce. The scientific viewpoint attached to the centuries-old therapy with SAD drugs, as in homeopathy, remained doubtful for want of appropriate research and insufficient evidence base.
The conflicting points related to SAD drug mostly related to the level of concentrations/dilutions, use of drug in contradictory clinical conditions compared to the modern system of medicine, identification of medicinally active ingredient in concentrations and dilutions used in commercially available SAD drugs, and lack of laboratory-based pharmacological data vis-à-vis modern medicine. Modus operandi of SAD drug is also unknown.
To address some of these issues an analytical study was carried out wherein commercially available SAD drug Digitalis purpurea, commonly used in different systems of medicine, was put to test. Various concentrations of commercially available Digitalis purpurea were analyzed using analytical methods: cyclic voltammetry, emission spectroscopy, and UV-VIS spectroscopy.
These analytical methods apparently identified the medicinal ingredients and effect of serial dilution in commercial preparation of the drugs.
Testing homeopathy in mouse emotional response models: pooled data analysis of two series of studies
Testing homeopathy in mouse emotional response models: pooled data analysis of two series of studies. Bellavite P, Conforti A, Marzotto M, Magnani P, Cristofoletti M, Olioso D, Zanolin ME. Source Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:954374. Epub 2012 Apr 4.
Abstract: Two previous investigations were performed to assess the activity of Gelsemium sempervirens (Gelsemium s.) in mice, using emotional response models. These two series are pooled and analysed here.
Gelsemium s. in various homeopathic centesimal dilutions/dynamizations (4C, 5C, 7C, 9C, and 30C), a placebo (solvent vehicle), and the reference drugs diazepam (1 mg/kg body weight) or buspirone (5 mg/kg body weight) were delivered intraperitoneally to groups of albino CD1 mice, and their effects on animal behaviour were assessed by the light-dark (LD) choice test and the open-field (OF) exploration test.
Up to 14 separate replications were carried out in fully blind and randomised conditions. Pooled analysis demonstrated highly significant effects of Gelsemium s. 5C, 7C, and 30C on the OF parameter “time spent in central area” and of Gelsemium s. 5C, 9C, and 30C on the LD parameters “time spent in lit area” and “number of light-dark transitions,” without any sedative action or adverse effects on locomotion.
This pooled data analysis confirms and reinforces the evidence that Gelsemium s. regulates emotional responses and behaviour of laboratory mice in a nonlinear fashion with dilution/dynamization.
Phenotypic evidence of ultra-highly diluted homeopathic remedies acting at gene expression level: a novel probe on experimental phage infectivity in bacteria
Phenotypic evidence of ultra-highly diluted homeopathic remedies acting at gene expression level: a novel probe on experimental phage infectivity in bacteria. Saha SK, Das S, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Source Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, India; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2012 Apr;10(4):462-70.
OBJECTIVE: To explore if some ultra-highly diluted homeopathic remedies claimed to have antiviral effects can demonstrate any discernible action in the bacteria Escherichia coli through modulating infectivity potentials of the bacteriophage φX174 DNA.
METHODS: φX174 was selected because of its known host specificity to E. coli and its constitutive expression of lytic gene E when inside the bacterial host. We deployed the “bacteriophage assay system” by “top layer agar plating” method of plaque-counting for evaluation of efficacy of the homeopathic remedies in rendering the bacteria’s protective ability against the attack of φX174. The plaque number in the agar-plated Petri dishes, either containing the phage-bacteria mixture subjected to one of the diluted homeopathic drugs under test (1% volume ratio; Belladonna 30C, Rhus Tox 30C, Arnica 30C) or the succussed 1% “alcoholic vehicle” of the drug was recorded. The plaques represented the bacterial colony actually infected and lysed by φX174. Conversely, we subjected φX174 to the homeopathic drug treatment before allowing them to interact with the bacteria to ascertain if the drug itself had any direct effect on the infective potential of the phage DNA entering into the bacterial cell.
RESULTS: Each homeopathic remedy showed a significant decrease in plaque number on pretreated bacteria (1 h prior to infection) with respect to untreated and placebo-treated controls; there was only an insignificant change in the plaque number when φX174 was pretreated with the drugs. As φX174 starts lytic cycle when inside the bacterial cell, the loss of plaque number would mean that either the lytic gene E in many was repressed or the entire phage DNA was annihilated by the bacterial gene product (restriction enzymes) known to be regulated by a cluster of genes.
CONCLUSION: This provides phenotypic evidence for the ability of ultra-highly diluted homeopathic remedies to regulate expression of certain gene(s) depending on need of the organism.